Consequences for survivors

The consequences for those affected are often very stressful. We distinguish between physical, psychological, social and sexual consequences, although these cannot always be clearly separated from each other.

Physical consequences

  • Amputation or permanent tissue damage of the external sexual characteristics
  • Tissue damage in the anal area and in the area of the rectum
  • Bleeding
  • Incontinence
  • Inflammations
  • Pain or problems with urination and defecation
  • Cardiovascular disorders
  • Psychosomatic pain

Consequences for sexuality and sexual identity

  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Infertility
  • Reduced or increased interest in sexual activity
  • Uncertainty about one's own sexual orientation or identity

Psychological consequences

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Depression
  • Suicidality
  • Feelings of shame and guilt
  • Disorders in emotion regulation (impulsivity, outbursts of anger)
  • Addictive disorders
  • Sleep disorders
  • Memory and concentration disorders
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Identity crises

Social consequences

  • Social isolation
  • Difficulties in the marriage/partnership or in the family
  • Social stigmatization by sourrounding people
  • Difficulties in practising the profession